The Seven Best Action Movies To See On The Big Screen

Action movies are these little gems in cinema that are gifts to movie fans who are just looking for fun on the big screen. Sure, there are some naysayers who think that action movies are nothing more than mindless drivel intended on doing nothing more than appealing to base emotions. So, what’s wrong with that?

Going to the movies is supposed to be fun, and action movies provide just that. Moreover, action movie buffs will tell you that if you’re quick to judge an action flick as beneath you, the actual issue is yours, and you’ve certainly not been paying attention to the latest action-packed movie offerings. Big explosions aside, the action movie has seen a bit of the renaissance, and if you’re a film buff, you owe it to yourself to check out the latest releases.

That said, it has to be noted that the best place to check out one of these awesome movies is in a proper theater. Yes, the home theater experience has become more refined and improved over the years, but it just doesn’t compare to the bombastic sound-system and massive screen you find at your local movie house. What’s more, there’s something about the whole theater experience that makes watching a movie much more fun. You want to look around at everyone else just to confirm you all just saw the same amount of awesome.

If you’re looking for the ultimate pairing of truly great action movies and the big screen, you need to see these seven movies in a theater with a quickness:

Gravity – Though some might argue this movie is more philosophical than action-packed, watch the end sequence, and you’ll understand what it means to be on the edge of your seat.

Terminator 2: Judgement Day – The first film was quite epic, but this sequel took things to a whole new level. From start to finish, this movie makes you just enjoy the thrills rather than focus on the actual apocalyptic message of the film.

Speed – Yes, it’s campy and corny by many people’s estimations, but it’s hard to argue with the action chops this movie delivers.

RoboCop – At a time in our history where we wonder about our safety, knowing there is a man-machine hybrid law enforcement officer who will clean up crime in an efficient manner is pretty sweet to behold.

The Matrix – The moviemakers behind this classic weren’t sure if the message of the movie was too deep for audiences to understand. Not only did they understand it, they were also privy to some of the most impactful action sequences ever put on film.

Raiders of the Lost Ark – An entire franchise rested on the shoulders of this early 1980s gem. Not only were the thrills in place for a truly entertaining time, but it also heralded the cementing of Harrison Ford as a bonafide movie star.

Watchmen – “Who watches the watchmen?” We love superhero movies & the idea of a group of superhuman individuals who keep us safe, but what happens when this isn’t the case? Based on one of the most celebrated graphic novels of all-time, this one deserves to only be shown in theaters.

Full disclosure: all of these action movies are now past their theater screening time and have made it to home viewing. That said, there are still some really great theaters out there that not only provide first-run movie releases, but they also go so far as to host theme movie nights that screen celluloid classics for the fan that just needs to see their favorite films back where they belong – on the big screen.


Serious Impressions of Stupid Movies

Movies have become one of the most influential factors in modern society. From starting new trends to educating the ordinary people, movies undoubtedly make an impression on the general public. Since the discovery of the very first motion picture in 1890s, movies have become a visual documentation on events of human evolution. Talking about the movies that are produced for entertainment purposes, here is a quote, from the Pulitzer Prize winner film critic Roger Ebert:

“We live in a box of space and time. Movies are windows in its walls.They allow us to enter other minds not simply in sense of identifying with the characters, but by seeing the world as another person sees it.”

-Roger Ebert

Roger once said that art is the closest that we could come to understanding how a stranger feels and movies as an amalgum of audio and visual form of arts, makes a very complex and sophisticated form of art. There is an undeniable effect that movies have in our thought process. When we exit a theatre after watching a movie, we leave with the definite kind of thoughts depending upon the movie we watched. With our responsibilities of daily life we skip through myriads of social and emotional aspects that keep us humane. We live in a world with so much colors and variations of human aspects but we fail to recognize and enjoy, while busy in our commitments. And that is where movies are a sweet reminder of what we are and what we have. Let us take “Forrest Gump” for instance that portrays the innocence of a guy, with the spirit to make something out of himself despite all the shortcomings. Or the more recent one “Happythankyoumoreplease”, which shows characters, no different from the ones in our neighborhood. The characters in the reel world are no different from those in our real world and the challenges they face are just a version of the ones we face. And movies help us understand life through different perspectives.

Let us take modern historical period movies and old classic ones, they are a depiction of how things were in the days gone by. As ordinary people they tend to be a reminder of our heritage, a source of reminiscence and nostalgia. There are also movies like “Blade Runner” which give us a peek into how things could be in the future, and there are ones that make us laugh and have a good time. Educating us, tickling our funny bones to cautioning us about the future events that could fall upon us, movies have an undeniable influence on our thoughts and actions.

There is little bad with every little good

Movie as a technology has grown from a simple fast moving collection of pictures to a complicated industry. With the technology’s ever growing popularity, movies have now become an integral part of our daily life. Be it in a friendly chat among friends or the daily news broadcast, movies are one of the subjects of discussion. Primarily a form of entertainment, movies as a whole is also listed as an informal source of education. Many people tend to learn from movies more than any other formal source, although that might seem like an overstatement. In many under developed countries movies and television series are used as the means for educating the population for social reform and bring an overall change. There is no denying on a vast reach of movies, this however could have a very bad effect, as not every movie carries the same humane values.

Movies that fall under the genres like historical drama, historical war movies and biopics are often criticized for taking liberty with the historical facts. They are accused of bending the story to dramatize events and make interesting movies. One of such movies is “Pearl Harbor”, which was released under much criticism. With film makers taking such liberty with the historical subject matters, it is both disrespectful and unforgivable. Due to such movies gullible audiences go on to believe a fiction to be the fact, which is not a good thing. On the other hand there are movies that fall under action and horror genres which are criticized for violent contents. Directors like Quentin Tarantino in Hollywood and Anurag Kashyap in Bollywood have their respective reason and logical explanations regarding such contents. Despite their reasonable explanations there is no denying that the exposure to violence may cause personality disorder in kids and other receptive demographic. There exists proper processes of identification and allotting category a movie goes through before its release to diminish such adverse effects. However their presence is only as good as the implementation.


How To Buy Diamonds Online For Ridiculously Low Prices

Practically we all will purchase a precious stone, a precious stone ring or another sort of jewel gem. Getting hitched includes purchasing a jewel ring for your life partner, commemoration rings are likewise normal, and we should not fail to remember men’s precious stone rings – they are exceptionally mainstream, as well.

In the period of data, it bodes well to think about the alternative of purchasing a jewel on the Internet. What’s more, to be sure, uber locales like, and more offer an enormous choice of jewels in all shapes and sizes to look over. A large number of the precious stones are affirmed so you don’t chance getting a jewel that is not exactly guaranteed.

The enormous precious stone destinations are a decent alternative for getting a jewel, however as a rule the reserve funds on the cost won’t be excessively incredible – indeed, you may get a comparable cost in the event that you wrangle a spot with a nearby precious stone vendor. The best spot to find genuine deals in the jewel field is

There has been a great deal of chat on purchasing and selling on ebay, and one ca discover a word of wisdom about these subjects. Purchase in this article we’ll examine explicit counsel about purchasing precious stones on ebay.

There are some exceptionally straightforward standards that should be seen when purchasing jewels on ebay. On the off chance that you observe these principles you are probably going to discover extraordinary arrangements on ebay.

Exhortation no. 1 – Search the correct way. Go for the “progressed search” choice. There will be an “Reject these words” box. You need to avoid words like : “lab”, “zircon”, “improved”. This will remove the “wannabe” precious stones and leave you with the best ones.

Guidance no.2 – Does the vender have a strong positive criticism? – check the dealer’s input and see that they have at any rate 50 positive criticisms structure selling precious stones previously. Additionally note the number of negative input they had. Make progress toward in any event %98 positive criticism. By and large it is enticing to purchase a modest jewel from another dealer, however this is as a rule an awful move, as you have no information on this merchant

Exhortation no.3 – Watch comparable precious stones to the one you need and perceive how much the sell for. Try not to purchase immediately. Simply watch a couple of closeouts as they develop. This will assist you with setting up a scope of costs you focus on.

Guidance no. 4 – Go for ensured. Once more, it’s enticing to purchase an un-confirmed jewel however as a rule this will be a serious mix-up. Go for guaranteed jewels just and this way you’ll ensure you get what you paid for, no less.

Exhortation no. 5 – Use eBay as a methods for pressure. In the event that you have a neighborhood jewel vendor who is attempting to sell you a precious stone, you might need to utilize the value levels you see on eBay as influence in your arrangement with that seller. You may improve bargain.

Going on the web to purchase a precious stone can save you a large number of dollars. Check this methodology out the home time you go out on the town to shop for a precious stone.


Fashion Jobs and Fashion Career Advice

Choosing one from many design occupations by and large is a staggering test. There are a few unique chances in the style business that you probably won’t be certain which one is best for you. With the appeal for design occupations, you should make certain of what it is that you need to do so you can begin on seeking after your fantasy in this serious industry. Beneath you will discover portrayals for a few style occupations and, hence, be one bit nearer to building up your profession in the design business.

  1. Style Designer

Because of shows like Project Runway, there are numerous individuals whose interest has been rose towards the style business, solely, design plan. A profession as a style architect appears to be lavish and fulfilling however it takes a ton of work. A style architect should be all around educated regarding the most recent patterns (and here and there even be in front of them) and have the inventiveness to conceptualize new plans. A style architect makes portrays, regardless of whether by hand or with PC helped plan (CAD) programming, of their plans and should be acquainted with textures and materials to make tests that show what the end result would resemble. As a style originator you can represent considerable authority in apparel plan, footwear or adornments. Style occupations like that of a design originator are drawn out with overwhelming long periods of concentrated work and heaps of heading out in the event that you need to advance your plans. Style creators work constrained to fulfill time constraints and establish a connection with design purchasers and other possible customers. As a style planner you would require ability and inventiveness as well as toughness and commitment.

  1. Design Merchandising

Style occupations in promoting can be extremely testing. A design merchandiser should understand what shoppers truly need, how to introduce it to them, what they need to pay for it and how to draw them to buy. A style merchandiser isn’t only a specialist in design however should likewise have solid business, monetary and promoting aptitudes. As a style creator you may end up making spending plans, following benefits and misfortunes, following stock, creating promoting techniques and in any event, assembling innovative visual presentations to attract purchasers. It’s a profession that involves various jobs yet in addition has numerous occasions to develop and progress in.

  1. Style Buyer

Style purchasers are among the most essential individuals for brands and organizations. They should have great relational abilities, be forceful, coordinated and driven. As a style purchaser you work connected at the hip with originators, merchandisers and other key individuals to choose what pieces to present to customers and guarantee that successes are persistently accessible. Purchasers should be aware of both current and future patterns so they can settle on the correct decisions of attire, shoes, extras, and so forth to guarantee high benefits. Working with providers to arrange costs recommends that a style purchaser should have great relational aptitudes, be taught in market costs and furthermore in shopper requests. Design purchasers should be prepared to work under tension, travel and investigate and break down to settle on useful choices on what items to offer their objective client base.

  1. Design Director

Style chiefs, otherwise called imaginative chiefs or design facilitators, are responsible for the picture and look of a store, magazine or a style house. They are responsible for that initial introduction given when individuals see promotion missions, shoots and even design films. A design chief should ensure that the models, picture takers, area and ideas describe the store, brand, or magazine in the best and most certified manner. Perhaps the most notable imaginative chiefs in the business is Grace Coddington who, close by Anna Wintour and other industry experts, are a piece of American Vogue. In the narrative “The September Issue” we can see Coddington indicating us her best work and the means she takes to create the wonderful spreads in Vogue. Presently, don’t figure it will be a snap getting one of these design occupations. Be ready for extended periods of time of work, inventive stumps, incessant voyaging, insane cutoff times, and being happy to return to the planning phase over and over. Keep in mind, as a style chief you are liable for the picture of a brand; you produce something that the entire world will see. Individuals will put together their sentiments with respect to what you present to them. As one of the top style occupations in the business, the pressing factor is on!

Style Jobs – The List Goes On

  1. Style Forecaster

Likely one of the most elevated positioning vocations in the design business, style forecasters do exactly that, figure the future patterns and styles. This is substantially more modern than guaging the climate. Not exclusively does a design forecaster need to have top to bottom information on style however the individual should likewise be innovative and doubtlessly have what it takes important to explore and dissect expected patterns, shadings, textures and examples. Design forecasters look for motivation in everything from films, music, even science and innovation. Getting a situation as a design forecaster is perhaps the most lofty of all style occupations you could desire.

  1. Design Stylist

A design beautician has the simple (or is it?) errand of making somebody look great. A beautician should be comfortable with what tones, textures and styles work best to compliment somebody’s shape while likewise knowing approaches to decorate and complete the ideal outfit. Design beauticians are answerable for picking the best pieces for photoshoots, occasions, and so forth and assembling them for the eventual outcome. A beautician’s standing lies on how great the customer looks and, on account of promotion missions, regardless of whether the beautician can impart the picture and vision of an item. Try not to be astonished if, as a design beautician, you end up going for inspiration or looking for garments, or in any event, going through a day (or a couple) redoing a customer’s wardrobe. Securing design positions for beauticians can be as simple as functioning as an individual customer or styling photograph goes for sites or nearby magazines or papers.

  1. Style Photographer

It’s not just about realizing exactly how to take a decent picture. Style picture takers essentially have two fields to be acceptable at: design and photography. The photography part comprises of understanding what points, lighting, and so on To the extent the style, picture takers truly should be specialists in that also. A style picture taker ought to consistently understand what the best patterns are, top originators, top design occasions and some other substantial hitter parts of the business. Style occupations in this field can comprise of taking pictures for model portfolios, promotion missions, and design shows. Style picture takers are answerable for delivering a shot that requires incredible specialized abilities and broad design information. For instance, when a style picture taker goes to take shots at a design show the person in question should know precisely when to snap the shot of that model wearing the streaming dress. The image must grandstand how the texture moves and streams as opposed to showing a dress that falls limp and delays the floor. A design picture taker works inseparably with beauticians, cosmetics specialists and models to guarantee that the end result is proficient in sending a visual message.

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Fantasy Art – Popular Or Academic?

Fantasy art pieces have always been interesting. They carry with them an air of mystery or amusement and are always conversation material among those who patronise the craft. While this art form may have some religious undertones, most of it is rather heavily influenced by folklore and mythology. Evolving from different corners of the world, fantasy art carry widely prevalent themes based on Greek mythology, African magical traditions or Chinese folklore.

Ancient fantasy artworks hanging in galleries depict images of angels and demon, gods, dragons and spirits. They are still quite popular today, although later renditions find some difficulty qualifying themselves as fine art.

The popularity of fantasy art probably started with a 16th century famous Dutch painter named Heironymus Bosch. His interpretation of the famous triptych entitled The Garden of Earthly Delight showed an initial panel on the Garden of Eden, a second one featuring a world of earthly pleasures, and finally a third hell depicting different types of sinners.


Weed Control

Arranging and Weed Plants

In the Bible, after Adam and Eve participated in the taboo natural product, God reviled the land that it would deliver weeds. It says, “In the perspiration of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou craftsmanship, and unto dust shalt thou return.”(Genesis 3:19)

Weeds are a piece of life, yet having a decent technique makes them a lot simpler to manage. The vast majority don’t very much want to weed and linger. At that point, when their yard thoroughly seems as though it needs weeding it can require some investment to weed.

Best Strategy

The best methodology is to weed when they are youthful seedlings. You can utilize a digger and with little exertion wipe out most of the weeds. In the event that you weed once every month, with a digger, it will take next to no time. The most significant weeding is late-winter when water is bountiful and seedlings are simply growing.

Weed Killer Applications

Once more, little weeds are a lot simpler to annihilate than huge weeds. In the event that you begin while weeds are little, you can execute them with one light application. Enormous weeds take significantly more toxic substance and even a few applications. The primary motivation behind weed control is that it requires some investment than hand weeding. On the off chance that you have an enormous field or field that has wild, this might be the solitary feasible choice.

The vast majority have discovered Round Up to be viable. It will murder any weeds and even grass. Different applications are for the yard and just murder broadleaf plants; like dandelions. On the off chance that you employ a grass preparation organization like Chem Lawn, you can have them shower the weeds for you.

Enormous Gravel Lots – Ground Killers

There is a weed executioner considered Pramatol that you can get at Intermountain Farmers Association. It arrives in a white granular structure. You can put it on the ground and it will deal with all the weeds for one year. Be that as it may, on the off chance that you read the holder it will make the ground sterile for as long as three years. We have just seen it labor for one year, however it functions admirably with just a single application. This item should be utilized with alert.


A few weeds can be showered more than once and don’t kick the bucket. Likewise, you can pull them by hand and never get out the roots. One illustration of this is Morning Glory. What is a property holder to do?

You can stand by until they bite the dust back and the following spring hit them hard while they are first growing. Furthermore, since the greater part of you don’t care for this answer, I will give you a choice to quickly dispose of them. You can take concentrated weed executioner and cautiously, with uncompromising elastic gloves and eye insurance, you can put focused weed executioner on the plants with a paintbrush or cloth. The high fixation makes certain to slaughter the weed. Never dump it on the weed. This would be perilous to people and is disregarding Federal Law. The objective is to use as meager as could be expected under the circumstances and take care of business.

Another alternative is to utilize a propane light. You can purchase particular propane burns that are caused only to wear out weeds. It’s a simple and snappy technique that functions admirably.

In all actuality, you should avoid harms however much as could reasonably be expected. They aren’t useful for people or the climate.


You may have the plan to simply weed whack down everything. This will give the property a general elevate, yet the weeds will return soon. The most ideal route is to shower the weeds first and stand by up to 14 days; at that point weed whack. Not exclusively accomplishes the toxin work down to the roots better, yet the additional weed whacking will make it more hard for the weeds to endure.


Mini Laptop Computers – Do They Need Laptop Computer Backpacks?

There are many different reasons why you finally decide to buy an ultra portable laptop instead of a common portable laptop.

It might be that you think you spend most of your time on the go. Therefore, you need something small but smart enough to load all of your data. Or maybe, you just want to follow the latest technology trend where smaller gadget means the latest fashion.

The ultra portable laptop such as Sony VAIO the TZ series will give you a personal image of an advanced- technology users. This is the proud of course. Maybe you are laughing at me but I will tell you that no one will buy the $2,200 ultra portable laptop just for surfing the net and doing some word processing. If so, they will buy a net book instead.

No matter what your reason is for purchasing new ultra portable laptop or net book, it is a good thing to know that you need laptop computer backpack to protect your mini laptop computer from scratch and damage.


How To Find The Most Relevant News Items Online

Picking out relevant news from the irrelevant junk that appears every day in the newspapers, on your television screen, or on the news portal you subscribe to, could be a tedious job. Especially when it is the first thing you are doing in the morning. Or better still, when you are looking for a piece of news that is pertinent to your industry and field of work, and all you can lay your hands on is spiced up stories, that if nothing else, definitely make sure that the news sells like hot cakes.

Moreover news readers everywhere today are faced with another major challenge. That of advertisements! All kinds of news portals everywhere are flooding with advertisements of every possible company that you have ever come across. From small ads, telling you how fabulous the company is, to quarter page to sometimes even full page ads, newspapers, news channels and almost every news portal today is brimming with advertisements. And while newspapers, news channels or news portals may be the best place for a marketer it certainly is not a pleasant experience for the viewer or the reader. Imagine waking up early in the morning, wanting to update yourself with whatever has happened in the world around you, in the last few hours, while you were tucked away in the comforts of your bed, only to be greeted with an array of advertisements of sorts. That definitely is not the best beginning to any day.

Hence many of you, who are almost addicted to news, simply get disgusted at this whole hoax that presents itself in today’s world in the form of news. Especially if you have been looking for breaking news, or handpicked news, having to sift through not only a lot of irrelevant news but also a great amount of unnecessary and time consuming advertisements may turn out to be an extremely irritating experience. To now save you from this form of torture you have several news portals available on the World Wide Web, that handpick news items for you and not only that, usually these sites are usually free from advertisements of any sort. They choose relevant articles, from relevant industrial sectors and then place them under separate categories. This makes the task of looking for news a far more pleasant and pleasurable experience, because in this case you can exactly click on the category of news you want or be specific about the particular beat of news that you are looking for, and you have all that you need to know about that particular industry right at your disposal.

Explow is one such website which has hit the nail right at the target. Not only do you have specific categories like recent news, but you also have your news items divided into specific categories like Business, Entertainment, Technology, Health, Lifestyle and Money & Finance. Moreover you also have an option of searching the website for exactly the kind of news that you are looking for. With websites like these have made their way to the internet it makes the life of an average reader way simpler.


The Erotic Films History of Turkey – The First All-Turkish Pornographic Film

Movie-making Turks haven’t been shy about including earthy subjects or fleshy cinematic scenes in their films since as far back as the 1950’s. That’s when street-walking prostitutes, drug-dependent harem girls, topless damsels in distress, soapy half-naked bathers, sexually provocative belly dancers, and uninvited-lovemaking first began appearing in conventional Turkish moving-pictures.

The ‘intensity’ of erotic action in conventional Turkish films escalated in the 1960’s when ‘lite’ erotic opposite-sex scenes began to heat up. And in Atif Yilmaz’s otherwise conventional Iki Gemi Yanyana (Two Ships Side by Side), the first lesbian Turkish movie scene — a scorcher for its day, in which Suzan Avci and Sevda Nur french-kissed on camera — gave Turkish movie goers a shock when it was first shown in 1963.

Female cinematic sex-symbols during the ‘Age of the Turkish Vamp’ (1950s – 1960s) included Neriman Köksal (who made 177 films between 1950 to 1995), Funda Yanar [pictured on our website as a topless dancer in Büyük Sehrin Kanunu (Big City Law, 1965] and Leyla Sayar — who, in 1960, performed a memorably bold (we are told) strip-tease act in Atif Yilmaz’s Ölüm Perdesi (Death Curtain)… But Leyla Hanim drew the line in 1972, when she realized the direction in which the seks filmleri furyasi (erotic films boom) would lead her. And after a short stint as a night club dancer, she quit the entertainment business altogether… opting instead for a simple, pious life.

But it wasn’t until 1972 that Parcali Behçet (starring action-man Behçet Nacar) — which was made in a desperate attempt by film-makers to woo audiences away from their newly acquired home TVs and back to near-empty movie theaters seats — became the first Turkish film to be produced exclusively for purposes of eroticism.

And when Parcali Behçet attracted an overflow opening-day crowd of 7,000 to its initial showing in Konya (Mevlana’s ‘hometown’, in the heart of Turkish religious conservatism) Turkish film-makers took notice (and heart). Subsequently, when the film enjoyed a 6-month run, in two side-by-side theaters smack in middle of that fair city, well, film-makers believed they’d found the holy grail. And from that time through to 1979, the production of erotik Turkish films mushroomed.

The three most popular genres for legally produced Turkish erotik films between 1972 and 1978 were Comedy, Adventure, and Murder Mystery. And they all had a not-very-well-kept secret about them in common. The secret was that Turkish actors and actresses didn’t perform the sex-act for real. They only simulated it… Men wore underwear (briefs) and camera angles were chosen to cover up the fact — sometimes without much success. Their are lots of flashes of men’s white briefs in the Turkish erotik films made between 1972 and 1978!

Any for-real sex that appeared in these films was performed by foreigners in parcalar (movie film clips) that were inserted at predictable intervals of the Turkish film. Sometimes these parcalar were made specifically for the Turkish film in which they appeared, but in most cases they were just crude cuts of foreign films — often entirely inappropriate (in focus or coloring) to the Turkish film.

That sort of erotik film-making subterfuge came to a screeching halt in 1979, when the first all-Turkish cast was filmed in the first-ever legally produced and distributed gloves-off pornographic Turkish film, Öyle Bir Kadin Ki (A Woman Like That) — directed by Naki Yurter, starring Zerrin Dogan and Levent Günsel in the leading female and male roles.


How to Evaluate Embedded Software Testing Tools

You Can’t Evaluate a Test Tool by Reading a Data Sheet

All data sheets look pretty much alike. The buzzwords are the same: “Industry Leader”, “Unique Technology”, “Automated Testing”, and “Advanced Techniques”. The screen shots are similar: “Bar Charts”, “Flow Charts”, “HTML reports” and “Status percentages”. It is mind numbing.

What is Software Testing?

All of us who have done software testing realize that testing comes in many flavors. For simplicity, we will use three terms in this paper:

  • System Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • Unit Testing

Everyone does some amount of system testing where they do some of the same things with it that the end users will do with it. Notice that we said “some” and not “all.” One of the most common causes of applications being fielded with bugs is that unexpected, and therefore untested, combinations of inputs are encountered by the application when in the field.

Not as many folks do integration testing, and even fewer do unit testing. If you have done integration or unit testing, you are probably painfully aware of the amount of test code that has to be generated to isolate a single file or group of files from the rest of the application. At the most stringent levels of testing, it is not uncommon for the amount of test code written to be larger than the amount of application code being tested. As a result, these levels of testing are generally applied to mission and safety critical applications in markets such as aviation, medical device, and railway.

What Does “Automated Testing” Mean?

It is well known that the process of unit and integration testing manually is very expensive and time consuming; as a result every tool that is being sold into this market will trumpet “Automated Testing” as their benefit. But what is “automated testing”? Automation means different things to different people. To many engineers the promise of “automated testing” means that they can press a button and they will either get a “green check” indicating that their code is correct, or a “red x” indicating failure.

Unfortunately this tool does not exist. More importantly, if this tool did exist, would you want to use it? Think about it. What would it mean for a tool to tell you that your code is “Ok”? Would it mean that the code is formatted nicely? Maybe. Would it mean that it conforms to your coding standards? Maybe. Would it mean that your code is correct? Emphatically No!

Completely automated testing is not attainable nor is it desirable. Automation should address those parts of the testing process that are algorithmic in nature and labor intensive. This frees the software engineer to do higher value testing work such as designing better and more complete tests.

The logical question to be asked when evaluating tools is: “How much automation does this tool provide?” This is the large gray area and the primary area of uncertainty when an organization attempts to calculate an ROI for tool investment.

Anatomy of Test Tools

Test Tools generally provide a variety of functionality. The names vendors use will be different for different tools, and some functionality may be missing from some tools. For a common frame of reference, we have chosen the following names for the “modules” that might exist in the test tools you are evaluating:

Parser: The parser module allows the tool to understand your code. It reads the code, and creates an intermediate representation for the code (usually in a tree structure). Basically the same as the compiler does. The output, or “parse data” is generally saved in an intermediate language (IL) file.

CodeGen: The code generator module uses the “parse data” to construct the test harness source code.

Test Harness: While the test harness is not specifically part of the tool; the decisions made in the test harness architecture affect all other features of the tool. So the harness architecture is very important when evaluating a tool.

Compiler: The compiler module allows the test tool to invoke the compiler to compile and link the test harness components.

Target: The target module allows tests to be easily run in a variety of runtime environments including support for emulators, simulators, embedded debuggers, and commercial RTOS.

Test Editor: The test editor allows the user to use either a scripting language or a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) to setup preconditions and expected values (pass/fail criteria) for test cases.

Coverage: The coverage module allows the user to get reports on what parts of the code are executed by each test.

Reporting: The reporting module allows the various captured data to be compiled into project documentation.

CLI: A command line interface (CLI) allows further automation of the use of the tool, allowing the tool to be invoked from scripts, make, etc.

Regression: The regression module allows tests that are created against one version of the application to be re-run against new versions.

Integrations: Integrations with third-party tools can be an interesting way to leverage your investment in a test tool. Common integrations are with configuration management, requirements management tools, and static analysis tools.

Later sections will elaborate on how you should evaluate each of these modules in your candidate tools.